Branches and Types of Agriculture
Understanding the branches and types of agriculture is necessary to have a purpose in agribusiness.
That is why we have decided to get you educated about the branches and types of agriculture. Also check out our articles regarding agriculture and agribusinesses.
Agriculture is the cultivation of crops, plants or rearing of livestock or animals either for sale or for human consumption. Agriculture is the food basket of the nation.
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BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE
1. Snail Farming: This is when snails are bred and fattened for sale or consumption.
2. Apiculture: Apiculture is defined as the art of rearing or breeding honey bee for the production of honey.
3. Aquaculture: Aquaculture is the scientific method of rearing fishes and other aquatic organism especially for human consumption.
4. Animal husbandry: Animal Husbandry is controlled cultivation of of domestic animals.
5. Agronomy: Agronomy is the branch of agriculture that deals with field crop production and soil consumption.
6. Plant pathology: is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions.
7. Plant physiology: Plant physiology is the study of plant function and behavior, encompassing all the dynamic process of growth, reproduction and communication that account for plants being alive.
Also read: 5 Global Threats To Agriculture
TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
1. Subsistence agriculture:
Subsistence agriculture is the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food by the farmer for himself and his or herself and his family
CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
1. It is produced on a small area or piece of land
2. It is not practiced for the purpose of making profit
3. There is no specialization
4. It makes use of family labour
5. Mixed cropping system is practiced
2. Commercial agriculture:
Commercial Agriculture is the type which is concerned with the production of food,animals cash crops in large quantities for sale
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
1. It involves cultivation of large hectares of land
2. It requires capital investment
3. it employs skill labour
4. There is specialization
5. Sole cropping system is mostly practiced
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURE
- Agricultural educationist
- Food scientist
- Environmental engineer
- Agricultural lawyer
- Agricultural operations manager
- Animal geneticist
- Agronomy sales manager e.t.c.
PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS OF AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1. Inadequate land or land tenure system.
a. Fertilizers and manure should be provided for the farmer.
b. The law regarding land tenure system should be implemented.
2. Inadequate finance or farm credit.
a. Agricultural and cooperative banks should make loan available for the farmer.
b. Bank’s should reduce the high interest rate to encourage borrowing.
3. Poor transportation system.
a. Good feeder road should be constructed in the rural area to improve transportation system.
b. Regular fuel supply should be available.
4. Inadequate storage and processing facilities.
a. Farmers should be encourage to build barns, cribs, rhombus, silos e.t.c. for proper storage after harvesting.
b. Many farmers should be trained on the technology of food storage.
5. Indequate farm inputs.
a. Government should subsidize the cost of farm input such as fertilizers, chemicals, seed and drugs.
b. Establishment of tractor hiring unit at affordable cost to the farmer.
6. Inadequate basic amenities.
7. Poor marketing system e.t.c.
IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
1. Production of export crops.
2. Source of agro tourism.
3. It serves as a job creation.
4. Source of raw materials for industries.
5. Source of entrepreneurial and investment opportunities.
6. Source of economic diversification.
7. It encourages food security.
8. It provides employment.